Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Exam 3 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Exam 3 - Research Paper Example This order faced many challenges with the migration of the African American to from southern to demonstrate against the violation of the order (Richard 78). This order helped the country during the war that emerged later with the African Americans being referred as janitors in the military sector. Civil Rights Act of 1964- In July 2, 1964, this Act got its creation as a landmark piece of civil rights in the United States in order to outlaw the major forms of discrimination against race, color, religion, sex, and women. The act ended the Jim Crow rules upheld by the Supreme Court that held the racial segregation purported as separate but equal and was constitutional. A congress later saw the benefits of the Civil Rights Act and expanded it to strengthen enforcement of the fundamental rights. During the proposed hearings by the Judiciary committee on the proposed legislation led to the amendment of the bill to broaden the scope of protections. These changes strengthen President Kennedy ’s original proposal on the response to the turbulent summer that saw several incidents of racially aggravated hostility across the south. After a continued fight against its approval, the country saw the benefits of the bill that saw the president in that particular time signs it into law. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)- This federal law enforcement agency enacts laws against workplace discrimination. It encompasses some other laws like the title of the Civil Rights Act 1964, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, which protects men and women who perform equal work in the same founding from sex- based discrimination. It also covers Age Discrimination in Employment of 1967, which protects folks above 40 years of age, or older (Hay 100). The United States Employment Opportunity Commission enforces all the above laws and provides an oversight and harmonization of all equal employment opportunity regulations, practices, and policies. Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADE A) OF 1967- This protects folks of 40 years of age and above from employment discrimination. This applies both job applicant and employees. According to the law, it is illegal to discriminate any person because of age with respect to any term, condition, privilege of service. This includes hiring, sacking, endorsement, layoff, reimbursement, paybacks, training, and job assignments. It applies to those employers with 20 or more workers including state, local governments, employment agencies, labor organizations, and the federal government. This has helped the government from risks associated with equal considerations in the workplace. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1973- It is a federal law enacted on September 26, 1973 and is known as the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that replaces the Vocational rehabilitation Act. It covers those individuals with a special history of handicaps or any health complications. Special programs held to pay tribute to people with disabilities prohibits discrimination against any disability in the agencies, in programs receiving Federal Financial assistance, employment among others. This helps value the contribution from those with disabilities. Question 2 Some people remain more fortunate than others in which they remain promoted while others stay at the middle or at the bottom of the positional ladder. This rise in rank

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Music and Passion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Music and Passion - Essay Example According to (Carducci 311) the type of music an individual listens has a reflex action on the type of personality an individual develops. The unique thing about music is not just the beats and the tempo or the rhythm but the words that a song writer chooses to work with. The words involuntarily change the thoughts of the listener. As a person listens, they take in the meaning of the words and slowly make them part of their lives. In a greater way, one slowly starts to change their world view, their thoughts and eventually change their character. This is seen is where an individual starts to use the words that they heard in a song and this shapes their daily lives. (Carducci 123) says that lyrics of a song can great influence the thoughts of an individual in a subconscious state. Aristotle talked about music and its power to communicate the emotional states of humans as well as their character. According to (Williams 92) Aristotle says that music directly imitates the passions as well as states of the soul. An individual listening to a particular type of music they are likely to absorb the same passion and a long exposure to the music, they develop characters based in the same passions. Based on these understanding, then the music people listens to is contributing too many of issues in the society. If the type of music an individual listens to can shape their characters as well as passions, then it means that these effects will also be seen in human relationships, laws, psychological challenges such as depression as well as anger. People who mainly listen to these types of music tend to show high levels of openness to new experience, high verbal ability as well as emotional stability. These individuals also believe that they are highly intelligent and tolerant. Majority of them can champion liberal social ideals. Majority of them are political conservatives and they also tend to be

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Different forms of child abuse Essay Example for Free

Different forms of child abuse Essay Child abuse is a common term for four types of child maltreatment: sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, and neglect. Children are usually victims of more than one type of abuse. They could be both sexually and emotionally abused or they could also be physically abused and neglected. In some severe cases, children may suffer from more than two forms of abuse. Child abuse was once viewed as a minor social problem that only affected a handful of U. S. children. In recent years the media and law enforcement has paid close attention to the issue. More than 1,000 children died from abuse in 1996, in the U.S. (1). Approximately 231 children are abused each day. That is 10 children every hour, and one child every six minutes. Each day in the United States, more than three children die as a result of child abuse, in the home. More children, age four and younger, die from child abuse and neglect than any other single, leading cause of death for infants and young children (1). The abusers can be family members, parents, caretakers such as babysitters and teachers, and strangers. Abuse occurs among all ethnic, social, and income groups. Most parents dont hurt or neglect their children intentionally. Many were themselves abused or neglected. Usually the cases that are reported involve poor families with little education. Also common in reports are young mothers, single-parent families, and parental drug or alcohol abuse. The frequency of child abuse is difficult to estimate, due to so many cases going unreported. There are signs, symptoms, and causes to all four types of child abuse. When you have a concern for a childs well-being, the signs or symptoms may help guide you in the process of reporting. Although, these signs, mentioned later, dont necessarily indicate that a child is being abused. A professional, who would be able to determine the abuse, should investigate the possibility. Determining the exact cause of child abuse is almost impossible. In general,  the factors that influence whether abuse will happen is grouped into two categories- internal and external. Lack of social support, economic hardship, and chemical dependency are a few external factors. Some internal factors are: biological, emotional, and psychological. Some factors are as common as low intelligence and range to, as rare as, a severe personality disorder such as Schizophrenia. Isolation is a factor contributing to abuse. When families have difficulties, perhaps from unemployment or other social problems, they may respond in a number of ways. The families that respond by isolating themselves, by withdrawing themselves from neighbors and friends, are the most likely to be abusive. Charles F. Johnson defines sexual abuse as any activity with a child, before the age of legal consent, that is for the sexual gratification of an adult or a significantly older child. Sexual abuse involves fondling, penetration, persuading a child to expose his or her sexual organs, and allowing a child to view pornography. In most of the reported cases the child knew the abuser, and one in five of the abusers were under age themselves. 12% of the confirmed cases reported in 1996 involved sexual abuse. An estimated 10-15% of males and 20-25% of females reported they were sexually abused by age 18 (2). Most sexually abused children never come to the attention of the authorities. There may be no physical signs of harm, but there is always the intense shame, and secrecy is often maintained, even by the adults who know of the abuse, for fear of destroying a family. There is evidence emerging that as many as one in three incidents of child sexual abuse are not remembered by adults who experience them, and that the younger the child was at the time of the abuse, and the closer the relationship to the abuser, the more likely one is not to remember, claims Linda Williams. Convicted rape and sexual assault offenders serving time in State prisons  report that two-thirds of their victims were under the age 18, and 58% of those (nearly 4 in 10 imprisoned violent sex offenders) said their victims were aged 12 or younger. In 90% of the rapes of children less than 12 years old, the child knew the offender. Sixty percent took place in the victims home or at the home of a friend, neighbor, or relative. Two-thirds of sex offenders in state prisons victimized a child. For offenders imprisoned for violent crimes against victims younger than 18 (1994), 15% were convicted of forcible rape, 57% were convicted of other types of sexual assault (lewd acts of forcible sodomy, statutory rape, etc.), about thirty percent reported attacks on more than one child, and more than half the victims were younger than 12. Out of 277 inmate interviews of all prisoners convicted of rape or sexual assault, two-thirds victimized children. Three out of four child victims were female, prisoners convicted of attacking children were mostly male, 97%, and about 22% of the child sex offenders reported having been sexually abused themselves during childhood. Half of the women raped were younger than 18 and 20% were victimized by their father (3). Children often fail to report because of the fear that disclosure will bring consequences even worse than being victimized again. The victim may fear consequences from the family or feel guilty for consequences to the perpetrator. Victims may also have a feeling that something is wrong with me, and that the abused is their fault. The impact of child sexual abuse is tremendous. It is estimated that there are 60 million survivors of childhood sexual abuse in America, today. Approximately 31% of women in prison state they have been abused as children and about 95% of teenage prostitutes have been sexually abused. Young girls who are forced to have sex are three times more likely to develop psychiatric disorders or abuse alcohol and drugs in adulthood, than girls who are not sexually abused (4). There are two different types of indicators of sexual abuse, physical indicators and behavioral indicators. Some of the physical indicators are: 1)Torn, stained or bloody underclothes. 2)Frequent, unexplained sore throats, yeast or urinary infections. 3) Bruises or bleeding from external genitalia, vagina, or anal region. 4) Sexual transmitted disease. 5) Pregnancy. Some of the behavioral indicators are: 1)The victims disclosure of sexual abuse. 2)Disturbed sleeping pattern. 3)Difficulty in walking or sitting. 4)Avoidance of undressing or wearing extra layers of clothes. 5)Sudden decline in school performance. The two prerequisites for this form of maltreatment include sexual arousal to children and the willingness to act on this arousal. Factors that may contribute to the willingness include alcohol or drug abuse, poor impulse control, and a belief that the sexual behaviors are acceptable and not harmful to the child. The chances of abuse are higher if the child is developmentally handicapped or vulnerable in some other way. Often there is no physical evidence of sexual abuse for a doctor to find. In fact, physical examinations of children in cases suspected sexual abuse supply grounds for further suspicion only 15-20% of the time (4). Physical abuse is the nonaccidental infliction of physical injury to a child, such as cut, bruises, welts, and broken bones. The abuser is usually a family member or other caretaker, and is more likely to be male. In 1996,  24% of the confirmed cases of U.S. child abuse involved physical abuse (4). A rare form of physical abuse is Munchausen syndrome by proxy, in which a caretaker, most often the mother, seeks attention by making the child sick or appear to be sick. Skulls and other bone fractures are often seen in young abused children, and in fact head injuries are the leading cause of death in abused children. A few physical indicators of physical abuse are: 1)Unexplained welts or bruises on the face, upper arms, throat, thighs or lower back in unusual patterns or shapes which suggest use of an instrument (electric cord, belt buckle) on an infant in various stages of healing that are seen after absences, weekends, or vacations. 2)Rope burns. 3)Bald patches. 4)Refusal to undress for gym. Some of the behavioral indicators of physical abuse are: 1)Behavioral extremes- withdrawal, aggression, depression. 2)Unbelievable or inconsistent explanation for the injury. 3)Fear of physical contact-shrinking back if touched. 4)Fear of medical help or examination. The usual physical abuse scenario involves a parent who loses control and lashes out at a child. The trigger could be a dirty diaper or crying. Unlike nonabusive parent, who may become upset or angry with their children from  time to time but are genuinely loving, abusive parents tend to harbor deep-rooted negative feelings toward their children. Emotional abuse, also known as psychological abuse, according to Richard D. Krugman, has been defined as the rejection, ignoring, criticizing, isolation, or terrorizing or children, all of which have the effect of eroding their self-esteem. Emotional abuse usually expresses itself in verbal attacks involving rejection, belittlement, humiliation, and so forth. Emotional abuse also includes bizarre forms of punishment, such as confinement of a child in a dark closet. Often psychological abuse accompanies other types of abuse and is difficult to prove. It is rarely reported and accounted for only 6% of the confirmed 1996 cases (3). A few physical indicators of emotional abuse are: 1)Eating disorders- obesity or anorexia. 2)Nervous disorders- rashes, facial tics, hives, etc. 3)Speech disorders- stuttering, stammering, etc. 4)Flat or bald spots on head (infants). A few behavioral indicators of psychological abuse are: 1)Age inappropriate behaviors- bedwetting, soiling, etc. 2)Habit disorders- biting, rocking, etc. 3)Cruel behavior- seeming to get pleasure from hurting another child, adult, or animal. 4)Overreaction to mistakes. Emotional abuse can happen in many different settings: at school, at home, on sports teams, and so on. The forth and final forms of child abuse is neglect. Neglect is the failure to satisfy a childs basic needs and can assume many forms. Emotional neglect is the failure to satisfy a childs normal emotional needs or behavior that damages a childs normal psychological and emotional development, physical neglect is the failure to provide adequate food, shelter, clothing, or supervision, and educational neglect includes the allowance of chronic truancy, failure to enroll a child of mandatory school age in school, and failure to attend to a special educational need. Failing to see that a child receives proper schooling or medical care is also considered neglect. In 1996, neglect was confirmed in over half of the abuse cases (3). Some physical indicators of neglect include: 1)Poor hygiene- lice, diaper rash, body odor, etc. 2)Lack of immunizations. 3)Untreated injury or illness. 4)Poor state of clothing. A few behavioral indicators of neglect include: 1)Chronic hunger or tiredness. 2)Assuming adult responsibilities. 3)Unusual school attendance. 4)No social relationships. Many cases of neglect occur because the parent experiences strong negative feelings toward the child. At other times, the parent may truly care for the child, but lack the ability to adequately provide for the childs needs due to being handicapped by drug abuse, depression, mental retardation, or other problems. As a result, their physical, emotional, social, and mental development is hindered. Young children remain at high risk for loss of life. Between 1995 and 1997, 78% of these children were less than five years of age at the time of their death, while 38% were under one year of age. As for cause of death, 44% of deaths resulted from neglect, 51% from physical abuse, and 5% from a combination of neglectful and physically abusive parenting. Approximately 41% of these deaths occurred to children known to child protective service agencies as current or prior clients (5). Abuse investigators are often a group effort involving medical personnel, police officers, social workers, and others. Careful questioning of the parents is crucial, as is interviewing the child. The investigators must ensure, however, that their questioning does not further traumatize the child. A physical examination for signs of abuse or neglect is, always necessary, and may also include blood tests, x-rays, and other procedures. If the child has sisters or brothers, the authorities must determine whether they have been abused as well. Signs of physical abuse are discovered in about 20% of the sisters and brothers of abused children (4). Child abuse can have lifelong consequences. Research shows that abused children and adolescents are more likely, for instance, suffer emotional problems, do poorly in school, abuse drugs and alcohol, and attempt suicide. As adults they have often have trouble establishing intimate relationships. Notification of the appropriate authorities, treatment of the childs  injuries, and protecting the child from further harm are the immediate priorities in child abuse! Sources All Figures Based Upon The Following: 1.A Nations Shame: Fatal Child Abuse and Neglect in the United States. 2.Child Maltreatment 1998: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. 3.http://www.prevent-abuse-now.com/stats.htm 4.http://www.prevent-abuse-now.com/stats2.htm 5.Wang, C.T. Daro, D. (1998). Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and Fatalities: The results of the 1997 Annual Fifty State Survey.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

A Painting by Paula Rego called The Family - The Stimulus for our Dram

A Painting by Paula Rego called The Family - The Stimulus for our Drama Piece INTRODUCTION In this essay I will be discussing the work that I have done in the first module of performance studies. The aim of this module was to develop technical skills in dance, drama and music and using the performance process of improvising, rehearsing and performing and then applying these skills to four performance pieces. We carried out several skills workshops to help develop confidence in all 3 thematic areas to a more even consistency as some members of our group had never done dance, music and some hadn't taken expressive arts GCSE. In this module I developed skills in all three areas, some completely new skills (for example in dance) and those skills, which I already knew but developed them to a higher standard of performance. I also learnt the processes of constructing a performance piece in performance studies and skills that are applicable in all three thematic areas. I will elaborate on how I have developed these skills during this module in this essay. THE DRAMA PIECE The stimulus we were given for our drama piece was a painting by Paula Rego called "The Family" which contained a lot of ideas for interpretation, especially work on proxemics, which we had previously studied in our skills workshops. "The Family" shows an ambiguous relationship between men, women and children and the variation in the 'traditional' status of a father, mother and daughter figures. It is important to bear in mind during stages of improvisation that character and plot development are not always the most essential part of a drama piece. More advanced performance skills should be taken into account, such as tension, proxemics and physicality and the subtext created as a result of the effective use of these techniques, which our drama piece evolved around. We decided that the most direct way of communication was to produce a distinct sexual subtext between two characters, and in our case this was the father and the daughter. Initial brainstorms we had were focused on light, physicality and gesture in the picture and we didn't want it to be 'story - led' as we felt this would be too simplistic and wouldn't allow us to explore our skills and techniques as performers. In the early stages of improvisation, we decided that tension was vital in our scene, so this had to be created by si... ...med our dance to a structured rhythm sequence to show the evolving of the evil dominating the pure and good. But as I said before, there seemed to be no real motivation behind our piece. I did feel thought that although we had no dialogue, it was unnecessary to do so and I think that the studying of Boal and Pinter really helped with this. I think that, as a group we realised that plot and character development weren't important at that stage. By not having any characters but just acting the gestus of our role, we portrayed the mannerisms, which as a result created tension because of the content of the scene. I do feel that because we didn't have characters such, the other skills we had refined were lacking. This is the one piece that I actually would like to do again as I don't feel we devised and performed this to the best of our abilities. I think I would've liked to keep the music and dance pieces but adjusted the drama to include the kind of energy we had had in the drama piece where the piece was 'loaded' with subtext. This I feel was not dramatic and didn't convey the ideas to the audience that we wanted to. I don't believe this piece was as successful as it could have been.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Library Science Essay

An integrated library system (ILS), also known as a library management system (LMS),[1][2] is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and patrons who have borrowed. An ILS usually comprises a relational database, software to interact with that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for patrons, one for staff). Most ILSes separate software functions into discrete programs called modules, each of them integrated with a unified interface. Examples of modules might include: acquisitions (ordering, receiving, and invoicing materials) cataloging (classifying and indexing materials) circulation (lending materials to patrons and receiving them back) serials (tracking magazine and newspaper holdings) the OPAC (public interface for users) Each patron and item has a unique ID in the database that allows the ILS to track its activity. Larger libraries use an ILS to order and acquire, receive and invoice, catalog, circulate, track and shelve materials. Smaller libraries, such as those in private homes or non-profit organizations (like churches or synagogues, for instance), often forgo the expense and maintenance required to run an ILS, and instead use a library computer system. [citation needed] Contents [hide] 1 History 1. 1 Pre-computerization 1. 2 1960s: the influence of computer technologies 1. 3 1970s-1980s: the early integrated library system 1. 4 1990s-2000s: the growth of the Internet 1. 5 Mid 2000s-Present: increasing costs and customer dissatisfaction 2 Examples 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links [edit]History [edit]Pre-computerization Prior to computerization, library tasks were performed manually and independently from one another. Selectors ordered materials with ordering slips, cataloguers manually catalogued items and indexed them with the card catalog system (in which all bibliographic data was kept on a single index card), and users signed books out manually, indicating their name on cue cards which were then kept at the circulation desk. Early mechanization came in 1936, when the University of Texas began using a punch card system to manage library circulation. [3] While the punch card system allowed for more efficient tracking of loans, library services were far from being integrated, and no other library task was affected by this change. [edit]1960s: the influence of computer technologies Following this, the next big innovation came with the advent of MARC standards in the 1960s which coincided with the growth of computer technologies – library automation was born. [3] From this point onwards, libraries began experimenting with computers, and, starting in the late 1960s and continuing into the 1970s, bibliographic services utilizing new online technology and the shared MARC vocabulary entered the market; these included OCLC (1967), Research Libraries Group (which has since merged with OCLC), and Washington Library Network (which became Western Library Network and is also now part of OCLC). [4] [edit]1970s-1980s: the early integrated library system Screenshot of a Dynix menu. The 1970s can be characterized by improvements in computer storage as well as in telecommunications. [4] As a result of these advances, ‘turnkey systems on microcomputers,’[4] known more commonly as integrated library systems (ILS) finally appeared. These systems included necessary hardware and software which allowed the connection of major circulation tasks, including circulation control and overdue notices. [5] As the technology developed, other library tasks could be accomplished through ILS as well, including acquisition, cataloguing, reservation of titles, and monitoring of serials. [6] [edit]1990s-2000s: the growth of the Internet With the evolution of the Internet throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s, ILSs began allowing users to more actively engage with their libraries through OPACs and online web-based portals. Users could log into their library accounts to reserve or renew books, as well as authenticate themselves for access to library-subscribed online databases. Inevitably, during this time, the ILS market grew exponentially. By 2002, the ILS industry averaged sales of approximately US$500 million annually, compared to just US$50 million in 1982. [5] [edit]Mid 2000s-Present: increasing costs and customer dissatisfaction By the mid to late 2000s, ILS vendors had increased not only the number of services offered but also their prices, leading to some dissatisfaction among many smaller libraries. At the same time, open source ILS was in its early stages of testing. Some libraries began turning to such open source ILSs as Koha and Evergreen. Common reasons noted were to avoid vendor lock in, avoid license fees, and participate in software development. Freedom from vendors also allowed libraries to prioritize needs according to urgency, as opposed to what their vendor can offer. [7] Libraries which have moved to open source ILS have found that vendors are now more likely to provide quality service in order to continue a partnership since they no longer have the power of owning the ILS software and tying down libraries to strict contracts. [7] This has been the case with the SCLENDS consortium. Following the success of Evergreen for the Georgia PINES library consortium, the South Carolina State Library along with some local public libraries formed the SCLENDS consortium in order to share resources and to take advantage of the open source nature of the Evergreen ILS to meet their specific needs. [7] By October 2011, just 2 years after SCLENDS began operations, 13 public library systems across 15 counties had already joined the consortium, in addition to the South Carolina State Library. Librarytechnology. org does an annual survey of over 2,400 libraries and noted in 2008 2%[8] of those surveyed used open source ILS, in 2009 the number increased to 8%,[9] in 2010 12%,[10] and in 2011 11% [11] of the libraries polled had adopted open source ILSs. [edit]Examples Open-source Evergreen Greenstone Invenio Koha Kuali OLE NewGenLib PhpMyBibli OpenBiblioÃ'Ž VuFind Proprietary Aleph from Ex Libris Innovative Interfaces Library†¢Solution, Library†¢Solution for Schools, and CARL†¢X from The Library Corporation LibraryWorld NOSA Qulto System SirsiDynix, Symphony—current version and Unicorn—a legacy system. SydneyPLUS International Capita Alto formerly Talis Alto (UK and Ireland) Virtua, former VTLS, from VTLS Inc. Voyager from former company Endeavor Information Systems, later acquired by Ex Libris (Polish) MOL, Patron and MOLIK – interface created for children (Polish) SOWA, SOWA2, SOWA2/MARC21, SOWA2/MARC21/SQLÃ'Ž Legacy NOTIS Dynix [edit]See also Library and information science portal Library computer system OPAC List of next-generation catalogs History of Library Automation [edit]References ^ Adamson, Veronica, et al. (2008). JISC & SCONUL Library Management Systems Study PDF (1 MB). Sheffield, UK: Sero Consulting. p. 51. Retrieved on 21 January 2009. â€Å"†¦ a Library Management System (LMS or ILS ‘Integrated Library System’ in US parlance). † Some useful library automation software are: KOHA ,Grennstone . LIBsis, and granthlaya. Tennant, Roy (16 April 2008). â€Å"Picking When to Jump, Part 2†. Library Journal. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 20 January 2009. â€Å"Across the pond they use the term library management systems (LMS) for what we call the integrated library system (ILS). † ^ a b Wallace, Patricia M. (1991). Gary M. Pitkin. ed. Library Systems Migration: An Introduction. Westport, CT: Meckler. p. 3. ISBN 0-88736-738-0. ^ a b c Wallace, Patricia M. (1991). Gary M. Pitkin. ed. Library Systems Migration: An Introduction. Westport, CT: Meckler. p. 4. ISBN 0-88736-738-0. ^ a b Kochtanek, Thomas R. (2002). â€Å"1 – The Evolution of LIS and Enabling Technologies†. Library Information Systems: From Library Automation to Distributed Information Access Solutions. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. p. 4. ISBN 1-59158-018-8. ^ Kochtanek, Thomas R. (2002). â€Å"1 – The Evolution of LIS and Enabling Technologies†. Library Information Systems: From Library Automation to Distributed Information Access Solutions. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. p. 5. ISBN 1-59158-018-8. ^ a b c Hamby, R. ; McBride, R. , & Lundberg, M. (2011, Oct. ). â€Å"South Carolina’s SCLENDS optimizing libraries, transforming lending†. Computers in Libraries. 8 31: 6–10. ^ http://www. librarytechnology. org/perceptions2008. pl ^ http://www. librarytechnology. org/perceptions2009. pl ^ http://www. librarytechnology. org/perceptions2010. pl ^ http://www. librarytechnology. org/perceptions2011. pl [edit]Further reading Olson, N. (2010). Taken for Granted – The Construction of Order in the Process of Library Management System Decision Making (Vol. 45). Goteborg / Boras: Valfrid publishing. [1] Rubin, Richard E. Foundations of Library and Information Science. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc. , 2004. [edit]External links MARC Records, Systems and Tools : Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress Higher Education Library Technology,(HELibTech) a wiki supported by SCONUL (Society of College National and University Libraries) that covers many aspects of library technology and lists technologies in use in UK Higher Education Key resources in the field of Library Automation Categories: Library automationÃ'Ž

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Sex Trafficking A Unique Sector Of Slavery - 1201 Words

Sex trafficking is a unique sector of slavery that primarily affects women and children. This is sexual exploitation for profit where victims face inhumane and volatile conditions. The practice comes in varying forms including brothels, strip clubs, and online services. This horrible occurrence happens secretly in practically any corner across the globe. Although it causes immense physical harm to its victims, the physiological and emotional damage remains severe and prominent. Victims from Asia are sent to the widest range of locations, but not all cases involve extensive transportation. One key contributor to sexual exploitation is Russia, and a variety of factors contribute to this prevalence. Russia’s colossal geographical size, and its connections to Europe and Asia are key factors in this crisis’s location. Following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 exploitation increased, alongside poverty, in Russia giving it a dark history. The cultural acceptance of this g ender inequality and crime has affected its role in society. The political attempts to fix the abuse are often weak and ineffective, yet new efforts and policies could decrease the problem. Although accurate numbers are scarce, unfathomable amounts of economic gains come from this practice and even more is needed to end it. Indeed, sex trafficking infects societies all across the world, but Russia’s significant problem in particular needs immediate attention and action. Unfortunately, Human sex traffickingShow MoreRelatedThe World Of Human Trafficking Essay1954 Words   |  8 Pages Why Countries are Reluctant to Effectively Combat Human Trafficking It is a crime that involves 21 million people worldwide, affects all areas from the slums and tribal villages to the skyscraper-filled metropolises, and pervades gender, ethnicity, and class (International Labour Organization 2014). 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Saturday, December 28, 2019

Was the Ice-Free Corridor an Early Route into Americas

The Ice-Free Corridor hypothesis (or IFC) has been a reasonable theory for how human colonization of the American continents occurred since at least the 1930s. The earliest mention of the possibility was arguably the 16th-century Spanish Jesuit scholar Fray Jose de Acosta who suggested that Native Americans must have walked across dry land from Asia. In 1840, Louis Agassiz put forward his theory that the continents had been covered by glacial ice at several points in our ancient history. After dates for the last time that occurred became available in the 20th century, archaeologists such as W.A. Johnson and Marie Wormington were actively seeking a way by which humans could possibly have entered North America from Asia when ice covered most of Canada. Essentially, these scholars suggested that Clovis culture hunters—then considered the earliest arrivals in North America—arrived by chasing after now-extinct large-bodied versions of elephant and buffalo following an open corridor between the ice slabs. The route of the corridor, since identified, crossed what is now the provinces of Alberta and eastern British Columbia, between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice masses. The Ice-Free Corridors existence and usefulness for human colonization are not questioned: but the latest theories about the timing of human colonization have seemingly ruled it out as the first pathway taken by people arriving from Beringea  and northeastern Siberia. Questioning the Ice-Free Corridor Map outlining the opening of the human migration routes in North America revealed by the results presented in this study.   Mikkel Winther Pedersen In the early 1980s, modern vertebrate paleontology and geology were applied to the question. Studies showed that various portions of the IFC were in fact blocked by ice from between 30,000 to at least 11,500 calendar years ago (cal BP): that would have been during and for a long while after the Last Glacial Maximum. Clovis sites in North America date to about 13,400–12,800 cal BP; so somehow Clovis had to arrive in North America using a different path. Further doubts about the corridor began to arise in the late 1980s when pre-Clovis sites—sites older than even 13,400 years (such as Monte Verde in Chile)—began to be supported by the archaeological community. Clearly, people who lived in far southern Chile 15,000 years ago could not have used the ice-free corridor to get there.   The oldest confirmed human occupation site known within the main route of the corridor is in northern British Columbia: Charlie Lake Cave (12,500 cal BP), where the recovery of both southern bison bone and Clovis-like projectile points suggest that these colonists arrived from the south, and not from the north. Clovis and the Ice Free Corridor Recent archaeological studies in eastern Beringia, as well as detailed mapping of the route of the Ice Free Corridor, have led researchers to recognize that a passable opening between the ice sheets did exist beginning circa 14,000 cal BP (ca. 12,000 RCYBP). The passable opening was likely only partially ice-free, so it is sometimes called the western interior corridor or deglaciation corridor in the scientific literature. While still too late to represent a passageway for pre-Clovis people, the Ice-Free Corridor may well have been the main route taken by Clovis hunter-gatherers moving from the Plains up into the Canadian shield. Recent scholarship seems to suggest that the Clovis big-game hunting strategy originated in the central Plains of what is today the United States and then followed bison and then reindeer northward. An alternative route for the first colonists has been proposed along the Pacific coast, which would have been ice-free and available for migration for pre-Clovis explorers in boats or along the shoreline.  The change of path is both affected by and affects our comprehension of the earliest colonists in the Americas: rather than Clovis big game hunters, the earliest Americans (pre-Clovis) are now thought to have used a broad variety of food sources, including hunting, gathering, and fishing. Some scholars such as American archaeologist Ben Potter and colleagues have pointed out, however, that hunters could well have followed ice margins and successfully crossed ice: the viability of the ICF is not ruled out. Bluefish Caves and its Implications This horse mandible from Bluefish Cave 2 shows a number of cut marks on the lingual surface. They show the animals tongue was cut out with a stone tool.   Università © de Montrà ©al All of the accepted archaeological sites that have been identified in the IFC are younger than 13,400 cal BP, which is the watershed period for Clovis hunters and gatherers. There is one exception: Bluefish Caves, located at the northern end, Canadas Yukon Territory near the border with Alaska. Bluefish Caves are three small karstic cavities which each have a thick layer of loess, and they were excavated between 1977 and 1987 by Canadian archaeologist Jacques Cinq-Mars. The loess contained stone tools and animal bones, an assemblage that is similar to Dyuktai culture in eastern Siberia which itself dates at least as early as16,000–15,000 cal BP. Reanalysis of the bone assemblage from the site by Canadian archaeologist Lauriane Bourgeon and colleagues included AMS radiocarbon dates on cut-marked bone samples. These results indicate that the sites earliest occupation dates to 24,000 cal BP (19,650 /- 130 RCYPB), making it the oldest known archaeological site in the Americas. The radiocarbon dates also support the Beringian standstill hypothesis. The Ice-Free Corridor would not have been open at this early date, suggesting that the first colonists from Beringia likely dispersed along the Pacific coastline. While the archaeological community is still somewhat divided about the reality and characterization of many archaeological sites that pre-date Clovis, Bluefish Caves is compelling support for a pre-Clovis entry into North America along the Pacific coast. Sources Bourgeon, Lauriane, Ariane Burke, and Thomas Higham. Earliest Human Presence in North America Dated to the Last Glacial Maximum: New Radiocarbon Dates from Bluefish Caves, Canada. PLOS ONE 12.1 (2017): e0169486. Print. Dawe, Robert J., and Marcel Kornfeld. Nunataks and Valley Glaciers: Over the Mountains and through the Ice. Quaternary International 444 (2017): 56-71. Print. Heintzman, Peter D., et al. Bison Phylogeography Constrains Dispersal and Viability of the Ice Free Corridor in Western Canada. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113.29 (2016): 8057-63. Print. Llamas, Bastien, et al. Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Provides High-Resolution Time Scale of the Peopling of the Americas. Science Advances 2.4 (2016). Print. Pedersen, Mikkel W., et al. Postglacial Viability and Colonization in North America’s Ice-Free Corridor. Nature 537 (2016): 45. Print. Potter, Ben A., et al. Early Colonization of Beringia and Northern North America: Chronology, Routes, and Adaptive Strategies. Quaternary International 444 (2017): 36-55. Print. Smith, Heather L., and Ted Goebel. Origins and Spread of Fluted-Point Technology in the Canadian Ice-Free Corridor and Eastern Beringia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115.16 (2018): 4116-21. Print. Waguespack, Nicole M. Why We’re Still Arguing About the Pleistocene Occupation of the Americas. Evolutionary Anthropology 16.63-74 (2007). Print.