Monday, June 29, 2020
Introduction High performance liquid chromatography 214 is the most widely used of all of the analytical separation techniques. The reasons for the popularity of the method is its sensitivity, ready adaptability to accurate quantitative determinations, suitability for separating non-volatile species or thermally fragile ones, wide spread applicability to substance that are of prime interest to industry, many fields of science and the public. The applications of chromatography have grown explosively in the last fifty years owing not only to the development of several new types of chromatographic techniques but also to the growing need by scientist for better methods for characterizing complex mixtures. General methodology for the development of new HPLC methods 215-228 HPLC method development follows the series of steps summarized below. Information on sample, objective of separation. Need for special HPLC procedure, sample pretreatment etc. Choice of detector and detector settings. Choosing LC method, preliminary run, estimation of best separation conditions. Optimization of separation conditions. Check for problems or requirement for special procedure. a) Recovery of purified material b) Quantitative calibration c) Qualitative method Validate method for routine laboratory use. A good method development strategy should require only as many experimental runs as are necessary to achieve the desired final result. Finally, method development should be simple as possible, yet it should allow the use of sophisticated tools such as computer modeling if these are available. Before the beginning of method development, it is necessary to review what is known about the sample in order to define the goals of separation. The kinds of sample related information that can be important are summarized in Table-7.1. Number of compounds present in the sample Chemical structures of components Molecular weights of compounds PKa values of compounds UV spectra of compounds Concentration range of various compounds in samples of interest Sample solubility The chemical composition of the sample can provide valuable clues for the best choice of initial conditions for an HPLC separation. Objectives of separation The objectives of HPLC separation need to be specified clearly include. The use of HPLC to isolate purified sample components for spectral identification or quantitative analysis. It may be necessary to separate all degradants or impurities from a product for reliable content assay. In quantitative analysis, the required levels of accuracy and precision should be known (a precision of 1 to 2% is usually achievable). Whether a single HPLC procedure is sufficient for raw material or one or more formulations and / or different procedures are desired for the analysis of formulations? When the number of samples for analysis at one time is greater than 10, a run time of less than 20 min. will be oftenly important. Knowledge on the desired HPLC equipment, experience and academic training the operators have. Sample pretreatment and detection Samples for analysis come in various forms such as: Solutions ready for injections. Solutions that require dilution, buffering, addition of an internal standard or other volumetric manipulation. Solids that must first be dissolved or extracted. Samples that require pretreatment to remove interference and/or protect the column or equipment from damage. Most samples for HPLC analysis require weighing and / or volumetric dilution before injection. Best results are often obtained when the composition of the sample solvent is close to that of the mobile phase since this minimizes baseline upset and other problems. Some samples require a partial separation ( pretreatment) prior to HPLC, because of need to remove interference, concentrate sample analytes or eliminate column killer. In many cases the development of an adequate sample pretreatment can be challenging than achieving a good HPLC separation. The detector selected should sense all sample components of interest. Variable-wavelength ultraviolet (UV) detectors normally are the first choice, because of their convenience and applicability for most samples. For this reason information on the UV spectra can be an important aid for method development. When the UV response of the sample is inadequate, other detectors are available (flourescence, electrochemical, PDA etc.) or the sample can be derivatized for enhanced detection. Developing the method for the separation Selecting an HPLC method and initial conditions If HPLC is chosen for the separation, the next step is to classify the sample as regular or special. Regular samples means typical mixtures of small molecules (2000 Da) that can be separated using more or less standardized starting conditions. Exceptions or special samples are usually better separated with a different column and customized conditions as summarized in Table-8.2. Regular samples can be further classified as neutral or ionic. Table-8.3 summarizes the appropriate experimental conditions for the initial reversed phase separation of regular samples. Samples classified as ionic include acids, bases, amphoteric compounds and organic salts. If the sample is neutral, buffers or additives are generally not required in the mobile phase. Acidic or basic samples, usually require the addition of the buffer to the mobile phase. For basic or cationic samples, less acidic reverse phase columns are recommended (Table-8.4) and amine additives for the mobile phase may be beneficial. Usin g these conditions, the first exploratory run is carried out and then improved systematically as discussed below. Table-8.2 Handling of special sample Sample Requirements Inorganic ions Detection is primary problems; use ion chromatography Isomers Some isomers can be separated by reversed-phase HPLC and are then classified as regular samples; better separations of isomers are obtainable using either (1) normal-phase HPLC or (2) reversed-phase separations with cyclodextrin-silica columns. Enantiomers These compounds require chiral conditions for their separations. Biological Several factors make samples or this kind special; molecular conformation, polar functionality and a wide range of hydrophobicity. Macromolecules Big molecules require column packing with large pores( 10-nm diameters); in addition, biological molecules require special conditions as noted above. Table-8.3 Preferred experimental conditions for the initial HPLC separation Separation variable Preferred initial choice Column Dimensions (length, ID) 15 x 0.46 cm Particle size 5 mma Stationary phase C8 or C18 Mobile phase Solvent A and B Buffer-acetonitrile % B 80-100%b Buffer (compound, pH, concentration) 25mM potassium phosphate 2.0pH3.0e Additives (e.g., amine modifiers, ion pair reagents) Do not use initially Flow rate 1.52.0 ml/min Temperature 35-45C Sample Size Volumed 25 mL Weightd 100 mg B : Polar solvent a 3.5 mm particles are an alternative using a 7.5 cm column b For an initial isocratic run; an initial gradient run is preferred. c No buffer required for neutral samples; for pH2.5, pH-stable columns are recommended. d Smaller values required for smaller-volume columns (e.g., 7.50.46-cm, 3.5-mm column). Table-8.4 Physical properties of silica supports for some C 18 columns Column (mL/mL) Pore diameter (nm) Surface area (m2/g) Percent Porosity Hypersil ODS 12 170 57 LiChrosorb C18 10 355 71 Novapak C18 6 N/Aa N/Aa Nucleosil C18 10 350 69` Symmetry C18 10 335 66 Zorbax ODS 6 300 55 Zorbax Rx, SB, XDB 8 180 50 a N/A : Not available On the basis of the initial exploratory run isocratic or gradient elution can be selected as most suitable. If typical reversed-phase conditions provide insufficient sample retention, suggesting the use of either ion pair on normal phase HPLC. Alternatively, the sample may be strongly retained with 100% acetonitrile as mobile phase, suggesting the use of non-aqueous reversed-phase (NARP) chromatography or normal phase HPLC. Some characteristics of reversed-phase and other HPLC methods are summarized below. Table-8.5 Characteristics of primary HPLC methods Method / description/ columns Preferred method Reversed-phase HPLC Uses water organic mobile phase Columns: C18 (ODS), C8, phenyl, trimethylsilyl (TMS), Cyano First choice for most samples, especially neutral or non-ionisable compounds that dissolve in water-organic mixtures Ion-pair HPLC Uses water-organic mobile phase a buffer to control pH and an ion pair reagent. Column : C18, C8, cyano. Acceptable choice for ionic or ionizable compounds, especially bases or cations. Normal phase HPLC Uses mixtures of organic solvents as mobile phase Columns: Cyano, diol, amino and silica. Good second choice when reversed-phase or ion-pair HPLC is ineffective, first choice for lipophilic samples that do not dissolve well in water-organic mixtures, first choice for mixtures of isomers and for preparative-scale HPLC (silica best) Getting started on method development One approach is to use an isocratic mobile phase of some average solvent strength (e.g., 50%) organic solvent. A better alternative is to use a very strong mobile phase with (80-100% B), then reduce %B as necessary. The initial separation with 100%B results in rapid elution of the entire sample, but few groups will separate. Decreasing solvent strength shows the rapid separation of all components with a much longer run time, with a broadening of later bands and reduced detection sensitivity. Improving the separation and repeatable separation Generally the chromatographers will consider several aspects of the separation, as summarized in Table-8.6. Table-8.6 Objectives of separation in HPLC method development Objectivesa Comment Resolution Precise and rugged quantitative analysis requires that Rs be greater than 1.5. Separation time 5-10 min is desirable for routine procedures. Quantitation 2% (1 SD) for assays; 5% for less-demanding analysis; 15% for trace analysis. Pressure 150 bar is desirable, 200 bar is usually essential (new column assumed) Peak height Narrow peaks are desirable for large signal / noise ratios Solvent consumption Minimum mobile-phase use per run is desirable. a Roughly in order of decreasing importance but may vary with analysis requirements. Separation or resolution is a primary requirement in quantitative HPLC. The resolution (Rs) value should be maximum (Rs1.5) favours maximum precision. Resolution usually degrades during the life of the column and can vary from day to day with minor fluctuations in separation conditions. Therefore, values of Rs = 2 or greater should be the goal during method development for simple mixtures. Such resolution will favour both improved assay precision and greater method ruggedness. Some HPLC assays do not require base line separation of the compounds of interest (qualitative analysis). In such cases only enough separation of individual components is required to provide characteristic retention times for peak identification. The time required for a separation (run time = retention time for base band) should be as short as possible and the total time spent on method development is reasonable (runtimes 5 to 10 minutes are desirable). Conditions for the final HPLC method should be selected so that the operating pressure with a new column does not exceed 170 bar (2500 psi) and upper pressure limit below 2000 psi is desirable. There are two reasons for that pressure limit, despite the fact that most HPLC equipment can be operated at much higher pressures. First, during the life of a column, the back pressure may rise by a factor of as much as 2 due to the gradual plugging of the column by particular matter. Second, at lower pressures 170 bars, pumps, sample values and especially auto samples operate much better, seals last longer, columns tend to plug less and system reliability is significantly improved. For these reasons, a target pressure of less than 50% of the maximum capability of the pump is desirable. When dealing with more challenging samples or if the goals of separation are particularly stringent, a large number of method development runs may be required to achieve acceptable separation. Repeatable separation As the experimental runs described above are being carried out, it is important to confirm that each chromatogram can be repeated. When changing conditions (mobile phase, column, and temperature) between method development experiments, enough time must elapse for the column to come into equilibrium with a new mobile phase and temperature. Usually column equilibration is achieved after passage of 10 to 20 column volumes of the new mobile phase through the column. However, this should be confirmed by carrying out a repeat experiment under the same conditions. When constant retention times are observed in two such back-to-back repeat experiments ( 0.5% or better), it can be assumed that the column is equilibrated and the experiments are repeatable. Completing the HPLC method development The final procedure should meet all the objectives that were defined at the beginning of method development. The method should also be robust in routine operation and usable by all laboratories and personnel for which it is intended. Quantitation and method validation One of the strengths of HPLC is that is an excellent quantitative analytical technique. HPLC can be used for the quantitation of the primary or major component of a sample (including pure samples) for mixture of many compounds at intermediate concentrations and for the assessment of trace impurity concentrations in matrix. Method validation, according to the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), is performed to ensure that an analytical methodology is accurate, specific, reproducible and rugged over the specified range that an analyte will be analysed. Method validation provides an assurance of reliability during normal use and is sometimes described as the process of providing documented evidence that the method does what it is intended to do. According to USP, the method validation involves eight steps as given below. Precision Accuracy Limit of detection Limit of quantitation Specificity Linearity and range Ruggedness Robustness Precision and accuracy: Already discussed in chapter-1. Linearity The linearity of the method is a measure of how well a calibration plot of response v/s concentration approximates a straight line, or how well the data fit to the linear equation. Y = aX + b Where Y is the response, X is the concentration, a is the slope and b is the intercept of a line fit to the data. Ideally, a linear relationship is preferred (b = 0) because it is more precise, easier for calculations and can be defined with fewer standards. Also, UV detector response for a dilute sample is expected to follow Beers law and be linear. Therefore, a linear calibration gives evidence that the system is performing properly throughout the concentration range of interest. Generally in HPLC, if we are using internal standard, then the linearity plot is to be drawn by taking concentration of the analyte on x-axis and the ratio of area under the curve (AUC) of analyte to AUC of internal standard (IS) on y-axis. The resulting plot slope, intercept and correlation coefficient provide the desired information on linearity. A linearity correlation coefficient above 0.999 is acceptable for most methods. Limit of detection (LOD) The limit of detection (LOD) is the smallest concentration that can be detected reliably. The LOD represents the concentration of analyte that would yield a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) The LOQ is the concentration that can be quantitated reliably with a specified level of accuracy and precision. The LOQ represents the concentration of analyte that would yield a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. LOD and LOQ can be determined by using the following expressions. LOD = 3 X N / B LOQ = 10 X N / B Where N is the noise estimate, is the standard deviation of the peak area ratio of analyte to IS (5 injections) of the drugs. B is the slope of the corresponding calibration curve. The LOD and LOQ values determined during method validation are affected by the separation conditions, columns, reagents and especially instrumentation and data systems. Ruggedness Method ruggedness is defined as the reproducibility of results when the method is performed under actual use conditions. This includes different analysts, laboratories, columns, instruments, sources, chemicals, solvents etc. method ruggedness may not be known when a method is first developed, but insight is obtained during subsequent use of that method. Robustness The concept of robustness of an analytical procedure has been defined by the ICH as a measure of its capacity to remain unaffected by small, but deliberate variations in method parameters. The robustness of a method is the ability to remain unaffected by small changes in parameters such as pH of the mobile phase, temperature, percentage of organic solvent and buffer concentration etc. to determine robustness of the method experimental conditions were purposely altered and chromatographic characteristics were evaluated. To study the pH effect on the retention (K1) of the drug, buffer pH is to be changed by 0.2 units. At certain point, retention will increase at any pH above and below of the pH unit. The effect of temperature on the retention characteristics (K1) of the drug is to be studied by changing the temperature in steps 2C from room temperature to 80C and see the effect of temperature on the resolution and peak shape. Effect of percentage organic strength on retention is to be studied by varying the percentage of organic solvents like acetonitrile, methanol etc. from 0 to 2% while the other mobile phase contents are held constant and observe the K1. At certain point decreases in K1 observed with increase in the level of organic solvent. Effect of buffer concentration should be checked at three concentration levels i.e. 0.025 M, 0.05 M and 0.1 M and observe retention time and resolution. Stability To generate reproducible and reliable results, the samples, standards and reagents used for the HPLC method must be stable for a reasonable time (e.g., One day, one week, one month, depending on the need). For example, the analysis of even a single sample may require 10 or more chromatographic runs to determine system suitability, including standard concentrations to create a working analytical curve and duplicate or triplicate injections of the sample to be assayed. Therefore, a few hours of standard and sample solution stability can be required even for a short (10 min.) separation. When more than one sample is analyzed, automated, over night runs often are performed for better laboratory efficiency. Typically, 24 hours stability is desired for all solutions and reagents that need to be prepared for each analysis. Mobile phases should be chosen to avoid stability problems, especially the use of amine additives or specific solvents. For example, mobile phase containing THF (tetra hydrofuran) are known to be susceptible to oxidation, therefore, the mobile phase should be prepared daily with fresh THF. Some buffered mobile phases cause problems for example, phosphate and acetate provide good media for microbial growth. Sodium oxide (0.1%) is often added to the mobile phase buffer to inhibit such growth, adding more than 5% of organic solvent is also effective. Long term column stability is critical for method ruggedness. Even the best HPLC column will eventually degrade and lose its initial performance, often as a function of the number of samples injected. System suitability System suitability experiments can be defined as tests to ensure that the method can generate results of acceptable accuracy and precision. The requirements for system suitability are usually developed after method development and validation have been completed. The criteria selected will be based on the actual performance of the method as determined during its validation. For example, if sample retention times forms part of the system suitability criteria, their variation (SD) during validation can be determined, system suitability might then require that retention times fall within a 3 SD range during routine performance of the method. The USP (2000) defines parameters that can be used to determine system suitability prior to analysis. These parameters include plate number (N), tailing factor, k and / or a, resolution (Rs) and relative standard deviation (RSD) of peak height or peak area for respective injections. The RSD of peak height or area of five injections of standard solution is normally accepted as one of the standard criteria. For an assay method of a major component, the RSD should typically be less than 1% for these five respective injections. The plate number and / or tailing factor are used if the run contains only one peak. For chromatographic separations with more than one peak, such as an internal standard assay or an impurity method, expected to contain many peaks, some measure of separations such as Rs is recommended. Reproducibility of tR or k value for a specific compound also defines system performance. The column performance can be defined in terms of column plate number N is defined by N = 5.54 (tR / W)2 Where tR is the retention time of the peak and W is the width of the peak at half peak height. The resolution of two adjacent peaks can be calculated by using the formula Rs = 1.18 (t2-t1) / W0.5.1 +W0.5.2 Where t1 and t2 are retention times of the adjacent peaks and W0.5.1 and W0.5.2 are the width of the peaks at half height. Rs = 2.0 or greater is a desirable target for method development. The retention factor k is given by the equation. k = (tR t0) / t0 where tR is the band retention time and t0 is the column dead time. The peak symmetry can be represented in terms of peak asymmetry factor and peak tailing factor, which can be calculated by using the following formula. Peak asymmetry factor = B /A Where B is the distance at 50% peak height between leading edge to the perpendicular drawn from the peak maxima and A is the width of the peak at half height. According to USP (2000) peak tailing factor can be calculated by using the formula T = W0.05 / 2f Where W0.05 is the width of the peak at 5% height and f is the distance from the peak maximum to the leading edge of the peak, the distance being measured at a point 50% of the peak height from the base line.
Wednesday, May 27, 2020
Reflection of Art (Essay Sample) Content: Name:Course:Instructor:Date:Reflection of the artMy first impressions after viewing the picture were a woman hovering over a human skeleton. She seems to be mourning the loss of a loved one, possibly a lover. Her face exudes sorrow but also shows relief perhaps for finding the remains of her cherished lover. The human skull caught my attention immediately I saw the picture. Rather than exude horror and grief, the human skull stares as if it is grinning back to the hovering woman. It protracts a scene such as consolation and comfort to the living woman. Dead human bodies are essentially regarded as horrendous and stupefying. However, this picture paints a relaxed and poised scene.I was surprised to see the gothic human skeleton staring at the humbled and at ease woman. Indeed, I was ghastly caught unawares by the serenity and peace in the picture. Although the lying person is long dead and decayed, the woman hovering over it is at peace with the situation. Nonetheless, she is distraught, mournful and sorrowful. In addition, she appears to have accepted what transpired an indication of relief. I really liked and marveled at the conspicuous display of several emotions efficaciously. This picture managed to capture the mixed emotions evidently prevalent in the scene.In spite of all, I was flustered and wav...
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Its beach weather! The ocean is full of fun, but its also full of wildlife, including jellyfish. Do you know what to do if you or someone with you sees a jellyfish or is stung by one? You should know the answer to these questions before you go to the beach since an encounter with a jellyfish can be a painful or possibly lethal experience. As a matter of practical chemistry, your biggest risk from a jellyfish or man of war sting may come from improper first aid intended to deal with the venom, so pay attention... Key Takeaways: Treating Jellyfish and Man of War Stings Jellyfish and the Portuguese man-of-war can deliver painful and potentially life-threatening stings.The first step of first aid is to remove the victim from the water. While some people are allergic to venom, the main risk comes from drowning.Seek emergency aid if the victim is having trouble breathing.For simple stings, use a shell or credit card to remove any tentacles clinging to skin.Vinegar is the most common chemical used to deactivate the stinging cells. While its fine to use salt water to rinse the area, fresh water should be avoided because it can cause stinging cells to release venom all at once.Its best to avoid jellyfish. Tentacles from dead animals can still sting! Question: What should you do if you see a jellyfish?Best Answer: Leave it alone.If its in the water, get away from it. If its on the beach and you need to walk around it, walk above it (dune side) rather than below it (surf side), since it may be trailing tentacles. Keep in mind a jellyfish does not need to be alive in order to sting you. Detached tentacles are capable of stinging and releasing venom for several weeks.My Actual Answer: It depends on what kind of jellyfish it is.I realize if it looks like floating jelly, its considered a jellyfish, but there are different types of jellyfish and also animals that look like jellyfish but are something else entirely. Not all jellyfish can hurt you. The jellyball pictured above, for example, is common off the coast of South Carolina, where I live. What do you do when you see one? If you are a kid, youll probably pick it up and throw it at another kid (unless its alive and then you avoid it because they kind of hurt when the waves throw on e at you). This is a non-venomous jellyfish. Most parts of the world have non-venomous jellyfish, which tend to be easy-to-spot. Its the jellyfish you dont see that present the biggest threat. Many jellyfish are transparent. The moon jellyfish is a common example. You probably wont see them in the water, so if you are stung you wont know exactly what got you. If you see a jellyfish and dont know what type it is, treat it like a venomous species and get away from it. The Portuguese man of war has a pink or blue float. Darieus / Getty Images Question: How do I treat a jellyfish sting?Answer: Act quickly and calmly to remove the tentacles, stop the stinging, and deactivate any toxin.Here is where people get confused because the best steps to take depend on what type of animal caused the sting. Heres a good basic strategy, especially if you dont know what caused the sting: Get out of the water. Its easier to deal with the sting and it takes drowning out of the equation.Rinse the affected area with sea water. Do not use fresh water! Fresh water will cause any stinging cells that havent fired (called nematocysts) to do so and release their venom, possibly worsening the situation. Do not rub sand on the area (same reason).If you see any tentacles, carefully lift them off the skin and remove them with a stick, shell, credit card, or towel (just not your bare hand). They will stick to swimwear, so use caution touching clothing.Keep an eye on the victim. If you see any signs of an allergic reaction, call 911 immediately. Symptoms could include difficulty breathing, nausea, or dizziness. Some redness and swelling is normal, but if it spreads outward from the sting or if you see hives on other parts of the body, that could indicate an allergic response. If you suspect a reaction, do not hesitate to seek medical attention!Now... if you are sure the sting is fro m a jellyfish and not a Portuguese Man of War the Man of War is not a true jellyfish) or any other animal, you can use chemistry to your advantage to inactivate the toxin, which is a protein. (Technically the venom tends to be a mixture of polypeptides and proteins including catecholamines, histamine, hyaluronidase, fibrolysins, kinins, phospholipases, and assorted toxins). How do you inactivate proteins? You can change the temperature or acidity by applying heat or an acid or base, such as vinegar or baking soda or diluted ammonia, or even an enzyme, such as the papain found in papaya and meat tenderizer. However, chemicals may cause the stinging cells to fire, which is bad news for someone allergic to jellyfish toxin or anyone stung by a Portuguese Man of War. If you do not know what caused the sting or if you suspect it is from a Man of War, do not apply fresh water or any chemical. Your best course of action is to apply heat to the affected area since it penetrates the skin and inactivates the toxin without causing more venom to be injected. Also, heat quickly helps alleviate the pain of the sting. Hot seawater is great, but if you dont have that handy, use any warmed object.Some people carry aloe vera gel, Benadryl cream, or hydrocortisone cream. Im not sure how effective the aloe is, but Benadryl is an antihistamine, which may help limit an allergic response to the sting. Hydrocortisone can help reduce inflammation. If you seek medical attention and used Benadryl or hydrocortisone, be sure to alert the medical professionals. Acetaminophen, aspirin, or ibuprofen commonly are used to relieve pain.The Portuguese Man of War (Physalia physalis) looks a lot like a jellyfish, but it is a different animal. While the blue or pink sail cannot harm you, the trailing tentacles pack a potentially-lethal sting. The tentacles can sting you even if the animal is dead.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
I interpret the phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"Times of terror are times of eloquence,Ã¢â¬ as meaning that traumatic or undesirable situations produce memorable speeches which guide people into action or change attitudes. EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s saying suggests the best speaking and writing rises from troubling events. The quote relates to the notion in BitzerÃ¢â¬â¢s essay that true rhetorical discourse occurs when a speaker addresses an audience in response to a situation in order to induce change. An example of this in a historical context is President Franklin D. RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s Pearl Harbor Address. A response to a terrible event, the speech explained the situation of the attack on Pearl Harbor and urged Congress to declare war. RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s words also served to change the attitude of the American people from one of neutrality to one of a nation at war. The Pearl Harbor Address relates to EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s quote because it occurred during a very dark time in the United States, yet it united the country and became a historic speech. The character Rocky BalboaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech to his son in the film Rocky Balboa is a cultural example relatable to the phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"Times of terror are times of eloquence.Ã¢â¬ In this particular scene of the movie, Rocky faces a major upcoming fight of which he admits he is scared to death. Meanwhile, his son is struggling at his job and reveals that he blames his father for it. In this moment, Rocky delivers a passionate speech, in which he encourages his son to persevere when he encounters obstacles, and toShow MoreRelatedFdr : A Protagonist Or Antagonist? Essay2098 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesFDR: A Protagonist or Antagonist? On December 7th, 1941, Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japanese forces. The very next day, Franklin D. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Prison inmates, are some of the most maladjusted people in society. Most of the inmates have had too little discipline or too much, come from broken homes, and have no self-esteem. They are very insecure and are at war with themselves as well as with society (Szumski 20). Most inmates did not learn moral values or learn to follow everyday norms. Also, when most lawbreakers are labeled criminals they enter the phase of secondary deviance. They will admit they are criminals or believe it when they enter the phase of secondary deviance (Doob 171). Next, some believe that if we want to rehabilitate criminals we must do more than just send them to prison. For instance, we could give them a chance to acquire job skills; which will improveÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, it is said that group counseling can do little to destroy the power of labeling (Bennett 26). The differential-association theory emphasizes that a person is more likely to become a criminal if the people who have the greatest influence upon them are criminals (Doob 169). Most of todays correctional institutions lack the ability and programs to rehabilitate the criminals of America. One can predict that a prisoner held for two, four, eight or ten years, then released , still with no educationling, there is disadvantages. For instance, members of the group might not be as open or show emotion because they want to appear tough. Also the members might not express their opinions openly because the others might see it as snitching. For the group to work it takes a dedicated counselor (Bennett 22-23). Another type of correctional center used for rehabilitation is halfway houses. Halfway houses are usually located in residential communities and are aimed to keep offenders in the community. The name comes from the fact that they are halfway between the community and the prison (Fox 60). The rationale behind halfway houses is that criminal activity originates in the community, so the community has a responsibility to try to correct it. Also, sending a person who has deviant behavior and who has been associated with criminal influences, to prison would just make the problem worse (Fox 61). The best place for treatment is in the community; thisShow MoreRelatedThe Prison System And The Prisons System Essay1258 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrealize how much prison affects someone. In the US the prison system is completely different than the prison system in Denmark. After watching Prison State, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really know what the pros were of our prison system. I saw more cons than pros. I was completely shocked by the way that Denmark runs their prison system. The video confused me a bit, so I did some research and found an article that I understood a little bit better about DenmarkÃ¢â¬â¢s prison system. The US prison system is definitely moreRead MorePrison And The Prison System Essay1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdiscouragement for humans is through the prison system. Because of this, these humans or inmates, are sentenced to spend a significant part of their life in a confined, small room. With that being said, the prison life can leave a remarkable toll on the inmates life in many different categories. The first and arguably most important comes in the form of mental health. Living in prison with have a great impact on the psychological part of your life. For example, The prison life is a very much different wayRead MoreThe Prison System1048 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFinal Exam Essay Question #2 Question: Discuss the history of the prison system in the United States. Be sure to identify the various stages that the American prison system has gone through. Also identify what problems were present with each stage as you see them. Response: American prison system incarceration was not officially used as the main form of punishment in United States (U.S.) until around the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. Before that time criminals were mainly punished by public shaming, which involved punishmentsRead MorePrison Authority And The Prison System947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesprisoners possess zero authority in the prison system. They have no control over any aspect of their daily lives, but instead they are minded by prison jurisdiction. Prison guards and wardens possess the power to do anything that they please within those brick walls. This is an issue that society has been aware of for many decades; however, there has been little to no effort to change the conditions. Many prisoners have sought to inform society of how these prison authority figures abuse their powerRead MoreThe Judicial System And Prison System1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesare corrupt, how the police are corrupt, and how AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s whole legal system is uncontrolled. Ã¢â¬ Å"I was innocent but was still jailedÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"the cops only targeted me because I was blackÃ¢â¬ ; and Ã¢â¬Å"How am I to live after ten years of imprisonmentÃ¢â¬ . ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a need for a reformation or policy changes in how America handles the judicial system and prison system because, currently, itÃ¢â¬â¢s chaotic, unfair, and overwhelming. In the judicial system there have been many cases where people have done the same crime, butRead MoreReforming Prisons : Reforming The Prison System Essay2140 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Reforming our Prison System With the population of the United States prisons growing every day we need to evaluate if they are doing any good. Personally, I believe that we need to keep our prison system, but we need to take steps in reforming them rather than abolish them altogether. The United States has the highest number of incarcerated people than any other country in the world. We must sit down and look at other countries and see what they are doing different than the United States. In thisRead MoreThe Prison System And The Jail System1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbe discussing is about the jail system. First, I will define the jail system, and what this system can do for the citizens. Second address the cons and pros about the jail system by illustrating the topic into main bullet points. Third, voice my thoughts about the jail system with adding pros and cons to a political action I should address, and concluding which action I am going to take to further y concern about the jail system. When hearing abou t the jail system, this is a political issue indeedRead MoreThe Death Of The Prison System1142 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe prison system has seen huge changes from the American Colonel days to now. At first punishment was a way to inflict pain in suffering onto prisoners. By doing this it set an example to detour crime. Punishment throughout time has changed with the building of prison systems and labor being implemented. Today punishment is carried out much different than in the past. Punishment is way to keep order and discipline throughout society. Punishments focus more now on rehabilitation then it does toRead MoreThe Punishment Of Prison System825 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In principle, prison system plays important role in the society through reforming and punishing offenders sent to prison and preventing potential offenders. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of in prisoners in the US prisons system, because prison is used as the primary corre ction facility for offenders while ensuring justice to offended (Guerino 20). Prisons comprise of offenders who are above the county jail level. Further, inmates comprise of people from differentRead MoreThe Death Of The Prison System956 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmany sought to revolutionize the system of punishing offenders. Moving from the barbaric practices of the earlier centuries, many governmental officials sought to ride crime through deterrence. Thus the birth of the prison system began. They believed that taking away a personÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom was a way to scare offenders into not committing criminal acts. However, with the number of incarcerated offenders increasing yearly, the statistics show that the penal system is a failure. This essay will look
FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT 1. Discuss the economic and social impact of brides and other similar payments in emerging economies. Corruption can take many forms and can be found in many countries, but mainly in the emerging ones. The main form of corruption is the bribery in the form of payments demanded by the government or ministry officials in exchange for a favor (granting a service, awarding a business).Corruption affects all the businesses that interfere with the government, but studies have shown that certain industries are more exposed to it. These industries are construction, airline manufacturing, power plants, and oil and gas production. In emerging economies the impact of bribes and other similar payments can affectÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Overall new procedures put in place were beneficial for Baker Hughes because they improved compliance and they also improved the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business operations. 5. Discuss whether the payments outlined on pages 12 and 13 are foreign corrupt practices. Yes, I think that the payments outlined on pages 12 and 13 should be considered corrupt practices because of the way they were registered in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s books -it was in compliance with the FCPA because of the anti-bribery provision and the books and records provision. 6. Evaluate whether the changes in Exhibits 4 and 5 are likely to stop future foreign corrupt practices at Baker Hughes. All the changes in Exhibits 4 and 5 are related to the agents that Baker Hughes will use in the future. The changes in Exhibits 4 and 5 are likely to stop future corrupt practices at Baker Hughes because they will provide the company with more information about the agents that they are about to hire (information that they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have before). The information is referring to agentsÃ¢â¬â¢ background, competence, reputation, their intentions, experience, skills, and their integrity and willingness to comply with FCPA. So Baker Hughes will be able to prevent and eliminate any acts of corruptions. 7. Discuss how the compliance and governance changes are likely to impact the future profits and shareholder value at Baker Hughes. The compliance and governance changes implemented at Baker HughesShow MoreRelatedThe Risk And Uncertainty Of Halliburton1816 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesconsolidation with Baker Hughes, another competitor in their industry (Halliburton And Baker Hughes Reach Agreement to Combine in Stock and Cash Transaction Valued at $34.6 Billion. p. 1). With this consolidation, Halliburton will acquire all assets of Baker Hughes, along with the future subsidiaryÃ¢â¬â¢s debts. With the uncertainty of the lifetime of the oil industry, and currently facing a significant loss, Halliburton is taking a serious risk facing such a large amount of debt and acquiring Baker Hughes. DiscussionRead MoreCompany Case Study : Halliburton Company1031 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesare strong and sustainable barriers to entry with Halliburton Company, it means that they can preserve a favorable position. B. SWOT analysis C. Competitive analysis Competitors: 1. Schlumberger 2. Weatherford International 3. Baker Hughes Accounting principles: Halliburton Company applies some accounting principles and guidelines as listed below: i. Recognition of the current asset or tax liability in order to establish estimated taxes payable or refundableRead MoreSchlumberger Logistics Report941 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmanufacturing, testing, and assembly to countries with possibly low cost of operations which coincidentally may also be where the market for their products services are experiencing growth. SchlumbergerÃ¢â¬â¢s closest competitors are Halliburton and Baker Hughes. I remembered a former Colombian senator once said if these three companies vanished overnight, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s energy system would start to break down in a couple of days. His point of view was settled to clarify how important these companies haveRead MoreBaker Hughes Incorporated ( Bhi / Nyse )858 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBaker Hughes Incorporated (BHI/NYSE) Baker Hughes is a top-tier oilfield service company that is headquartered in Houston, Texas. The company provides oil and gas exploration and production companies worldwide with products and services for drilling, formation valuation, production, and completion. Baker Hughes also provides services for downstream segments of the oil and gas industry. Technological innovation is at the center of Baker HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ success. The company is over 100 years old, with 60,000Read MoreCorporate Social Responsibility : Baker Hughes1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction Baker Hughes headquarters are located in Houston Texas and is a company that participates in the global petroleum industry and offers products and services for finding, evaluating, drilling, extracting, and producing hydrocarbons. (BakerHughes) These services operate in the Americans, Europe, Russia, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia Pacific. According to the last fiscal year, Baker Hughes has 24551 million dollars in revenue and makes a profit of 1719 million dollars. With the helpRead MoreBaker Hughes: Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Study Questions1020 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescorrupt practices, it will help deter employees from engaging in the practices. 4. Discuss the pros and cons of the two groups(independent investigators and blue-ribbon experts) used by Baker Hughes. The pros of the independent investigators were that they were from a firm separate from Baker Hughes, and did not provide any other legal work for the company. This allowed them to report to the board objectively. It is a pro that there is no conflict of interest because they have no otherRead MoreEssay about Josephine Baker2425 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesJosephine Baker While Jim Crow laws were reeking havoc on the lives of African Americans in the South, a massed exodus of Southern musicians, particularly from New Orleans, spread the seeds of Jazz as far north as New York City. A new genre of music produced fissures in the walls of racial discrimination thought to be impenetrable. Musicians such as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, King Oliver and Fletcher Henderson performed to the first desegregated audiences. Duke Ellington starredRead MoreHarlem, New York552 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pageswas a time when African American Artist, Writers, Dancers, Musicians, and Doctors decided to show the world how spectacular they were. Duke Ellington, Billie Holiday, and Langston Hughes were just a few famous names that arrived during this time. One sensational woman stood out among the rest, her name was Josephine Baker. She took a stand and fought for what she believed in, she was a strong and passionate women and she never let anyone get in the way of the things she loved to do. No matter how risquÃ ©Read MoreEssay on A Universal Renaissance Man1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA Universal Renaissance Man James Mercer Langston Hughes was born February 1, 1902 in Joplin, Missouri, to school teacher Carrie (Caroline) Mercer Langston and James Nathaniel Hughes. HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ father left his family, and later divorced Carrie moving to Cuba, and then Mexico trying to escape the racism in the United States. Since his mom traveled looking for work, young Langston was being raised by his maternal grandmother, Mary Patterson Langston in Lawrence, Kansas. She told him stories of abolitionistRead MoreThe New Negro Movement, By Zora Neale Hurston1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand now, how it begun after World War 1,who were the influential people during that time period, literature/poetry, the Jazz Age, art, and how it ended due to the Great Depression. Innovator of Jazz poetry among other contributions, Langston Hughes once quoted Ã¢â¬Å"An artist must be free to choose what he does, certainly, but he must also never be afraid to do what he might choose.Ã¢â¬ This is an example of the mentality African Americans possessed during the time period of the Harlem Renaissance
Carl Sandburg Biography Essay Carl Sandburg was unique compare to many other poets. All of the poems that he wrote were short and straight to the point. You would not find any poems that he had written that are over a page, yet still; his poems are very easy to understand. Sandburg lived through a lot of historic events, so all of his poems were about those historic events. As you know, history isnt always exciting or easy to learn. Yet, Sandburg was able to write about those times in a way that an average high school student can understand, unlike other poets like Emily Dickinson or Edgar Allen Poe. Carl Sandburg should be included in an anthology of American poetry because of his writing technique and experience. Sandburg used a lot of the generalization methods to make his poems simpler to understand. Even though we know that sometimes-generalizing things are not good, Sandburg did a great job of it and was still able to write out everything he wanted to. Like I said, Carl Sandburg lived through some of the most famous historic events in the United States of all time. He had seen events like World War I, the roaring 1920s, the Depression, World War II, the New Deal, and the Cold War. The anthology of American poetry needs more poets with his kind of experience. Ill bet you that he never had trouble trying to figure out what to write about. The poem I chose by Carl Sandburg was a poem called JAWS. Its a poem about World War I, and it talks about how the countries that were involved in the war had a chance to prevent war, but they ignored it. This poem should be included as an example of the poets work because its saying what we think and feel. When we learn about how World War I was started, we would be thinking dont these countries realize what theyre getting themselves into and dont they have consciences. The poem JAWS talks about all these things so we can relate to it. Another reason why I think this poem should be included as an example of the poets work is because its short and straight to the point. If you were to give a high school student a choice of either reading a page long poem or a paragraph long poem, most chances are that student will pick the paragraph long one. And just because the poem JAWS is short doesnt mean its not well written or incomplete with information. It has enough information for that certain type of poem and probably even an elementary student can understand it. This poem can be included in the canon because its about history and history is being taught on for all generations. It also should be included in the canon because not many poems in the canon are as short yet still contains so much information.